Sunday, March 22, 2020

101 Awesome Informative Essay Topics All in One Place

101 Informative Essay Topics: This is Your Best Guide! Are you looking for an informative essay? Have you been trying hard to come up with good informative essay ideas but to no use? We can understand why it’s so difficult. As human beings, whenever we write something, we tend to influence the writing by our own opinions and perceptions of the subject matter at hand. This induces bias in the essay, and it doesn’t really remain informative; instead, it becomes argumentative. It’s really a challenge to constantly scrutinize each and every line of your essay in order to ensure that the information being passed is free from any kind of bias. Sure it takes time; first to think, to write, to scrutinize and modify, then to edit, it’s really a whole lot. Besides, informative essays need to have the information drawn from credible and reliable sources. You need to carefully select the sources of information, which is not always easy because many articles available online require students to have subscriptions before th ey can view them in full length. Add to it the trouble of having to complete so many other assignments and having to prepare for the upcoming exam or quiz; we can understand you may be running out of time! We are there to help you. Wondering How to Select the Best Informative Essay Topic? Selecting the topic for an informative essay is particularly difficult. There are many challenges in deciding and finalizing the topic. To begin with, a student is confused about how to sum up and reflect the gist of the information on a topic containing hardly five or six words. On the other hand, they cannot compromise the quality of the topic because if the topic is not good, the essay’s readership is significantly reduced. You may get some idea of topics online. Try to search your keywords and look at the articles that show up. Probably you would be able to get a good idea from there. If not, don’t worry, just place an order with us and we will be pleased to write the best topic for your informative essay. Here’s a List of Informative Essay Topics We Wrote We are sharing a list of 101 informative essay topics that our writers have written. You may just get a good idea for your essay from these topics. So it’s useful for you! The end of slavery in America. The impact of Brexit on the economy of EU countries. Endangered animal species. The process of photosynthesis. Effects of water pollution on sea-life. The rise and fall of the Ottoman Empire in Turkey. Solar system. The chemical composition of petrol. The phenomenon of light reflection by white color and absorption by black color. Safe practices for administering healthcare of animals kept in the zoo. Military training of cadets in cadet colleges in Pakistan. Solar energy. The binary system. Wars between India and Pakistan. Life on other planets. The process of transfer of money across countries. The structure of the human heart. The impact of fertilizers on soil quality. African tribes. Medicinal uses of honey. Treatment of cancer. China’s five-year population control plan. Dam as a way for conservation of water. Homeless shelters in America. Types of flora in the Amazon. The demise of the Mughals in India. History of British rule in India. The Chinese influence on the global trade. Exotic animals. The role of the nervous system in a healthy human body. Processing of image in the brain. Drunk driving. The timeline of important battles in the history of Europe since the 17th The process of publication of a book. The process of a cloud formation. Fruit varieties in Africa. The effect of advertising on child psychology. Tourist attractions in Sudan. The role of education in the change of gender perception in the US since the 19th Types of crops cultivated in North America. The phenomenon of the pearl formation in the sea-shells. The mechanism of decomposition of fossil fuels. Environmental effects of global warming. Forbes’ criteria of selection the 100 most powerful women. The selection criteria in the US army. Nepotism in Hollywood. Composition of the human skin. Factors controlling the rate of rainfall in the Amazon Jungle. Corporate social responsibility initiatives of McDonald’s. Practices of compilation and preservation of ancient scriptures. Bermuda Triangle. Personal protective equipment of flight passengers. Types of sharks. 10 rarest species of fish. 100 most influential businessmen of the 20th 10 ideas to start a business with a very limited School drop-out rates among Hispanic Americans. Natural resources of Canada. The evolution of paper currency. Salient features of the latest robots. Famous hockey players. Skin allergies. Measures taken by banks against cyber attacks. Admixtures to increase the setting time of concrete in cold weather. Initiatives taken by the government of Dubai for sustained growth and development. The global financial crisis of 2008. Importance of jogging. Cognitive processes involved in language learning. The role of genes in the color of skin. Life in 2050. Malala Yousafzai as a female education activist. Serial killers. The lost civilizations. Types of rocks. Social networking as a way of relationship building. Rights of gay communities in Canada. Medicines made from the rose. Evolution of the game of football. Famous 19th-century celebrities. Initiatives taken by Prime Minister Imran Khan for improving bilateral relations between India and Pakistan. The effects of smoking on the lungs. Causes of World War II. The role of civil rights’ movement in shaping the modern American society. The effect of chemotherapy on skin cells. The culture of India. The Miss India Pageant. Top models of 2017. Color-blindness. Post-traumatic stress disorder. The effect of the imposition of VAT on businesses in Dubai. Potential for growth of trade in Afghanistan. Child abuse. Cyber-bullying on social media. The growing housing bubble in the US. Effect of inflation on trade in China. Famous leaders of the 21st Electric cars. You can see that the topics for the informative essay given above belong to all kinds of fields ranging from social sciences to construction and engineering. You can use these topics as such or improvise them to match the requirement of your essay. A List of Informative Essay Questions Phrasing a question related to the informative essay is even more difficult than writing just a topic. The question should be such that it requires only the delivery of information rather than argument or opinion. Here’s a list of some questions related to informative essays: How does a cellphone work? How chocolates are made? How does the process of pollination happen? How does cryptocurrency work? What is the composition of the earth? How fish breathe in water? How do plants conduct photosynthesis? What causes the change of seasons? How petrol is made from fossil fuels? How pre-packaged foods are processed? In what ways does the US help the third-world countries? What are perfumes made of? What is the greenhouse effect? How taste buds sense taste? How juice is made in a factory? Don’t Wait, Reach Us Now if You Can’t Do It Yourself! You can use the guidelines, topics, and questions shared above. All it will take is learning the instructions and practicing drafting to get good at informative essay writing. Just in case you are too busy to write your essay because of other assignments or an upcoming exam, you have the option of getting your piece written by us. We are a custom informative essay writing service. We write informative essays on all sorts of topics, ranging from medical sciences to engineering and social sciences. We have subscriptions and access to a variety of credible sources of information and databases. We can write informative essays for you drawing information from the latest research articles published in high-impact renowned journals. So if it’s not possible for you to write your piece yourself, complete other assignments while we write an informative essay for you. Just place the order and let our professional academic essay writers do the magic!

Thursday, March 5, 2020

US Terrorism essays

US Terrorism essays The United States has become the target of the most recent terrorist attacks because of its political involvement in the middle east. The United States has had involvement in the middle east ever since before the Gulf War which took place in the early 1990s. Their involvement began in the early 80s when they were called to help out Isreal, an ally which was being harrasses by Palestine. Their presence has been felt there since and the U.S. has acted like International Police. The presence of the United States has been felt in that region of the middle east since the 1980s and has upset certain groups of muslims who do not want them there. The U.S. first became involved in the middle east when it finally recognized the Palestinian Liberation Organization (P.L.O.), an organization which was developed to help the Palestinians try to recover land that they lost when the country of Isreal was created in 1948. The United States foreign policy limited the P.L.O.s success because it made of certain rules that the P.L.O. had to follow before the U.S. finally recognized it as being the representative of all Palestinian Arabs. The P.L.O. had to accept the existence Isreal as a state,withdraw troops from Isreal, and to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries. This did not set well with the P.L.O. They refused to accept Isreal as a state and in return the Americans did not regcognize the P.L.O. as an organization but stil kept troops there to try and keep the peace. This is where the U.S. first seen signs of terrorism. There were bombings, hi-jackings, and shootings directed at civilian targets by palestinians who claimed that their actions were political statements. The P.L.O. failed to condem the use of internations terrorist tactics andeven thought they do have a no tolerance policy ...

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Robert Altman ; The Director, and a close analysis of The GingerBread Essay

Robert Altman ; The Director, and a close analysis of The GingerBread Man - Essay Example Serving as a B-24 copilot in the United States Air Force, Altman took the next baby steps toward his future career when he began writing short stories and screenplay drafts at the age of 20 (â€Å"Robert Altman†, 2005). As soon as he was discharged from the military at the end of the World War II, Altman made a bid for his Hollywood dreams by following the path of many who had gone before him and trying to become an actor. He even landed a spot as an extra in â€Å"The Secret Life of Walter Mitty,† then wrote an unaccredited screenplay for United Artists’ â€Å"Christmas Eve† and sold a script he co-wrote with Richard Fleischer to RKO for the 1948 version of â€Å"The Bodyguard† (â€Å"Robert Altman†, 2005). Despite this early promise, Altman eventually went bankrupt in Hollywood and was forced to return home to Kansas City, but he hadn’t given up on his dreams. He began working for the Calvin Company and was given the opportunity to direct his first film, although it was a short one and meant for industrial purposes. Through the Calvin Company, Altman learned valuable filmmaking lessons such as how to shoot rapidly, stay on schedule, work within the confines of both big and low budgets, how to use the camera, the boom mike, the lights, and more technical aspects of the art (â€Å"Robert Altman†, 2005). His first feature film came in the form of a teenage gang drama entitled â€Å"The Delinquents† filmed in Kansas City, edited in Hollywood and sold to United Artists. With this film, Altman was able to catch the eye of Alfred Hitchcock, for whom he began directing a series of television shows. Altman worked in the television arena until 1964, working on shows such as â€Å"Bonanza,† â€Å"The Millionaire† and the â€Å"Kraft Suspense Theatre.† One of the shows he directed for the latter was expanded into a feature length movie and helped pave the way for Altman to break into that genre.

Monday, February 3, 2020

Nike Research Plan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Nike Research Plan - Essay Example However, the USA population that purchases apparels at Target stores might be too big to be recruited to the research study. Therefore, a sample population that is largely representative of the entire USA population purchasing apparels at Targets will be adopted. Nike suffered a great deal in sales and popularity decline, after the Tiger Woods personal scandal that saw the whole of the golf industry lose in sales and profits. There is no doubt therefore, that a need to improve both the image and financial performance of Nikes golf apparel exist. Thus, the research project has defined the research question as; â€Å"Could Nike’s diminished popularity within the golf community increase by introducing an exclusive line of low-cost apparel to be sold at Targets all over the United States?† The sampling method to be applied in this research study is the cluster sampling technique. Cluster sampling technique is the most appropriate for this research study. This is because; the study seeks to establish the population of customers who purchase apparels at Target stores in the USA, Thus making the group of customers at each Target store an already clustered population. The choice of cluster sampling as the method sampling technique is informed by the fact that the entire population that purchases apparels at Targets is unknown, while its characteristics of are also unclear. Further, the suitability of cluster sampling technique for this study is also informed by the fact that the sample clusters targeted by this study are geographically convenient (Ahmed, 2009). This research study targets to collect data from the population that purchases apparels at Targets, which then means that such clusters are conveniently clustered at the different geographical Target store location s.

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Voting Habits in US Elections

Voting Habits in US Elections The right to vote typifies the soul of American popular government. Despite the fact that we have propounded popular government abroad, suffrage has never been just as open to all Americans. Making a choice is the most broadly comprehended and discretely compelling approach to have ones voice heard in American legislative issues. When we practice our entitlement to vote in favor of open authorities, the votes we cast reach out a long ways past one election: we have the capacity choose people who will settle on cement choices for our sake about how our legislature will be run, the wars we participate in and how assets, both national and nearby, are disseminated. Also, the election of candidates from assorted groups serves to make an initiative base that can well-spoken and supporter for the particularized needs of these groups. This history of the right to vote has been characterized by rejections. Toward the start of our republic generally just white guys with property or riches could practice the right to vote. The primary significant development of the right to vote happened after the Civil War with the appropriation of the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution which developed the right to vote to previous African American slaves. On the other hand, from that time until the Voting Rights Act in 1965, numerous African American, Latino/an, Asian American and indigenous Indian groups were kept from the surveys through clearly bigot implies. In spite of the fact that the entry of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 proclaimed a fresh start in giving racial and ethnic minority groups with access to the political methodology, the battle for all inclusive suffrage and political cooperation is a long way from being done. This battle for electing correspondence proceeds with today. Concerned group activ ists, voting rights legal advisors and different promoters furnished with instruments, for example, the government Voting Rights Act and other elected and state statutes, persevere in their endeavors to destroy the last vestiges of appointive gadgets, practices and methodology that repress the full political mix of racial and ethnic minority groups. The most fascinating inquiries concerning an election are not concerned with who won however with so much inquiries as why individuals voted the way that they did or what the ramifications of the results are. These inquiries are not generally effectively replied. Looking just at the fight occasions and episodes wont suffice. The one of a kind parts of the election must be mixed with a more general understanding of electing conduct to make a full clarification. We in this way need to talk about fundamental ideas and thoughts utilized as a part of the investigation of voting conduct as a premise for examining the 2004 results. Two noteworthy concerns portray the investigation of appointive conduct. One worry is with clarifying the race come about by distinguishing the wellsprings of individual voting conduct. We endeavor to comprehend the election result by seeing how and why the voters made up their personalities. An alternate real concern in voting exploration stresses changes in voting examples over the long run, for the most part with an endeavor to figure out what the race results let us know about the bearing in which American legislative issues is moving. For this situation, we concentrate on the elements of constituent conduct, particularly as far as present and future improvements. These two concerns are corresponding, not opposing, however they do accentuate distinctive sets of examination inquiries. For our reasons, these two concerns give a valuable premise to examining key parts of voting conduct. Numerous Americans nearly take after political issues, yet studies demonstrate that most dont. Most Americans in this manner settle on their political choices, and voting choices, in view of variables other than the issues. These variables include: The voters experience and recognizable proof with the hopefuls The voters party recognizable proof The voters perspective of the officeholders past execution For some voters, their impressions in regards to specific hopefuls and political partys are profound established. Most voters know how they will vote, even in the early phases of a fight. It is uncommon for crusades to change the brains of voters, however some of the time a crusade can effectively influence enough voters to impact the anticipated conclusion of a race. Consider the 2012 presidential race. Different surveys demonstrated that just around 10% of enrolled voters asserted to be undecided in the two months before Election Day. Of those 10%, roughly 40% asserted to be inclining to a specific hopeful. Likewise note that, of those 10%, just 61% were named liable to vote whatsoever. A voters experience has the biggest impact on that voters choice. Voter foundation implies the voters social personality, for example, monetary class, ethnicity, sex, race and religious inclination. Regularly, an applicant will intentionally rigging crusade messages to specific voters, utilizing a subject that passes on equivalence. This equality can be focused around the general foundation, appearance or even the identity of the applicant. Then again, once in a while voters relate to an applicant even without that hopeful intentionally indulging shared characteristic. In any case, voters have a tendency to vote in favor of the competitor that appears to be most like them. Case in point, 95% of African-Americans who voted in the 2008 race voted in favor of African-American hopeful Barack Obama. Of those African-Americans who voted in the 2012 election, 93% voted in favor of Obamas reelection. In the 2008 essential races, a greater number of ladies than men voted in favor of female hopeful Hillary Clinton. Notwithstanding, female minorities still had a tendency to vote in favor of Obama and Obama won the Democratic selection over Clinton. In 1960, John F. Kennedy was ready to turn into our countrys initially chosen Catholic president. He won, with about 78% of Catholic voters throwing their votes in favor of Kennedy. Presently how about we investigate the impact of a voters party. A voters party distinguishing proof specifically impacts that voters choice. By party ID, we mean a voters party association as well as a voters mental connection to a specific political party. Eminently, near to 90% of voters partnered with a political party vote in favor of that partys applicant in presidential races. American voters have a tendency to learn and embrace whichever party association most affected their childhoods. Those brought up in a group of Democrats generally recognize themselves as politically liberal, while those brought up in a group of Republicans normally distinguish themselves as politically moderate. Be that as it may, this is not generally the situation. The quantity of voters recognizing themselves as Independent is on the ascent, however 89% of those voters case to incline to a specific political party. Note that these Independents are very nearly as prone to help a political partys appli cant as those voters who transparently partner themselves with that party. The presidential race, the absolute most vital election in America, regularly goes unnoticed by a huge number of people the country over. Notwithstanding its criticalness in excess of 36 percent of the 206 million qualified voters – more than 70 million individuals, in excess of eight million of which were 18 to 24 – neglected to make their choice in the 2008 election. For each presidential election, a large number of secondary school understudies and different grown-ups pick not to vote. By doing so they crush the motivation behind majority rules system and relinquish the benefit to vote in favor of their next president. In a perfect world each qualified subject would vote to fairly choose future authorities, however numerous individuals quit of voting and never offer thought to such stupendous choices. As a just republic, the United States provides for its kin the ability to choose authorities who will go ahead to choose the fate of the country. This right takes a stab at the overwhelming expense of war, and even today a few different nations offer their residents no such popularity based methodology. America provides for its kin sure rights, and its kin – every one of them, even secondary school understudies – ought to use these rights to their fullest degree. Voting is the pith of popular government and its most urgent. References Teixeira, R. A. (2011).The disappearing American voter. Brookings Institution Press. Dalton, R. J. (2013).Citizen politics: Public opinion and political parties in advanced industrial democracies. CQ Press. Hazan, R. Y., Rahat, G. (2010).Democracy within parties: candidate selection methods and their political consequences. Oxford University Press. Aarts, K., Blais, A., Schmitt, H. (Eds.). (2011).Political leaders and democratic elections. Oxford University Press.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Patient Self Determination

Patient Self-Determination Act Project Scott Betzelos, Remedios C. Lazaga, Emelin Tan, Maya C. Richardson HCS/578 – Ethical, Legal, and Regulatory Issues in Health Care November 28, 2011 Susan M. Kajfasz Patient Self-Determination Act Project – Advance Directives Congress enacted the Patient Self-Determination Act, a healthcare policy, as part of the Omnibus Reconciliation Act signed by President Bush in 1990. The act went into effect in 1991(Nathanson, 1997). According to Nathanson (1997), the law intends to protect the patient’s right to make his or her own decisions through advanced directives. Advance directives designate another person to make decisions for him or her should a patient lose his or her decision-making capacity. The Medicare and Medicaid programs established a requirement that health care providers must acknowledge the law through the implementation of written policies and procedures that illustrate the patient’s rights (Nathanson, 1997). Therefore, it is the responsibility of the health care professional to comply ethically and legally according to the policies dictated by the organization. Nathanson (1997) interpretation of the law asserts that the patient must receive advice and written information about advanced directives illustrating his or her right to accept or refuse medical treatment. The Patient Self-Determination Act requirement ensures that health care professionals receive education and training that is appropriate and in subordination with the specific laws, regulations, organizational policies, and procedures. The Act requires each state to furnish health care providers and agencies with a description of the law. The Act also requires providers to give their patients information through various forms of media such as the policy of Concerned Home Care, Incorporated, (Concerned Home Care, Inc, 2011). How does this agency’s policy influence your professional work? The Advanced Directive Policy creates a unique physician patient relationship by placing the patient at the center of the health care decision-making process from the onset of the relationship. The patient has an inherent right to â€Å"accept or refuse medical treatment† through the formulation of an Advanced Directive. Through this policy the hysician-patient relationship begins with discussions that center on the desires of the patient rather than the processes of the health care provider. The Agency’s policy mandates that physicians, nurses, and other health care providers â€Å"provide the patient with written information regarding Advance Medical Directives and ask the patient if he/she has prepared an Advan ce Directive; either a living will or durable power of attorney. † Advance Directives allow patients to implement specific boundaries for treatments at the beginning of the clinician-patient relationship. Pre-existing advance directives also empowers patients because it allows family members to speak on their behalf in the event that they become incapacitated or unable to render decisions on their own. A patient’s medical wishes were often preempted for the application of intensive and invasive treatments of the past. Advance Directive Policies changed this standard of care and gave patients the opportunity to determine their own treatment plan. The initiation of Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) Orders is an early example of Advance Directives. Later developments embrace the inclusion or exclusion of specific treatment medications, invasive procedures, and care maps that can impact patient longevity in the event that complications from disease arise. Written Advance Directive Information protects the patient from personal bias of staff members. The policy states â€Å"the staff member is not authorized to give the patient advice about advanced directives,† and â€Å"shall refer the patient to the Advanced Directive Questions and Answers section of the admission packet and also shall inform the patient to seek further information from the physician. This further advances the discussions between the physician and the patient ultimately ensuring that the desires and expectations of the patient remain central to the care map. Advanced Directive decisions â€Å"require open communication between the patient and the health care team† (Burkhardt & Nathaniel,  2008, pp. 242-243). The Agency is also required to rais e awareness of Advanced Directive within the community by including â€Å"Advance Directive information in its presentations,† either â€Å"in presentations made directly to the community members or in presentations made to other providers and/or other organizations. Enhanced discussions regarding Advanced Directives, end of life care and the patient’s desired plan of treatment becomes part of the heath care provider’s relationship during an office or in home. The creation of open and honest lines of communication stimulates healthy discussions and strengthens the bond between providers and patients. In fact the term â€Å"physician-patient relationship† has forever changed with Advanced Directive policies. It is more fitting that the terminology reflects the fact that patients have greater control over their care. Thus the term should be â€Å"patient-physician relationship,† placing the patient at the center of the health care continuum. As the patient centered relationship continues, the past â€Å"passive position† that makes it difficult â€Å"to remain intellectually and emotionally in control of your own experience† will continue to progress placing patients first and normal operating procedures second (Ashton & Richards,  2003, p. 7). What are the effects of the increasing technology of patient confidentiality and data security on health care organizations? Health care organizations face an enormous task of maintaining the privacy of their patients with the onslaught of new technology. This task involves ensuring that employees have policies and procedures to follow when using new technology to access protected health information (PHI), faxing PHI, and using the Internet. Health care organizations and health care providers have the responsibility of implementing a patient’s Advance Directives. However, new technology can give way to digression to past behaviors and the paternalistic attitudes of some clinicians may result in disregarding a patient’s Advance Directives. Some clinicians may believe they know what is best for the patient because advances in technology often raises hope that a provider can positively impact or alter a patient’s current medical condition (Burkhardt & Nathaniel, 2008). According to Miller and Tucker (2009), the use of electronic medical records (EMRs) could reduce America’s annual health care bill by $34 billion through higher safety and efficiency but only 41% of hospitals in the United States have adopted its use. Concerns over effectively protecting patient privacy and the cost of securing information have prevented the widespread use throughout the industry. A prime example of the fruition of security concerns is the downfall of the Santa Barbara County Care Health Data Exchange in 2007 (Miller & Tucker, 2009). The state mandated privacy filters but the system still failed. New technology requires privacy protection devices to protect PHI. This may force health care organizations to increase the rates of medical record use just to keep financially afloat. Conclusion The creation of Agency policies has impacted the physician-patient relationship effectively giving the power to control the course of treatment to patients. In essence, physicians have become advisors in the presence of Advanced Directives, yielding to the desires of patients and their families. The provision of care changed with advances in technology. Information sharing and dissemination requires physicians and other health care providers to successfully navigate between their new role as advisors and their commitment to ensure the best delivery of care to their patients. Melding the two provides the best guarantee that patients will have both their wants and needs met maximizing the opportunity for positive health outcomes. References Burkhardt, M. A. , & Nathaniel, A. K. (2008). Ethics and issues in contemporary nursing (3rd ed. ). Mason, OH: Delmar Cengage Learning. Concerned Home Care, Inc. , (2011). Concerned Home Care Policy and Procedure Manual Harbor Beach, MI. : . Miller, A. R. , & Tucker, C. (2009). Privacy protection and technology diffusion: The case of electronic medical records. Management Science, 55(7), 1077-1093. Nathanson, M. D. (1997). Home Health Care Law Manual (5th ed. ). Gaithersburg, MD. : Aspen Publication. Appendix I: Advance Directives for Concerned Home Care, Inc. [pic]

Friday, January 10, 2020

Modernity in Kiray-a Poetry

MODERNITY IN KINARAY-A POETRY A Study of 15 Contemporary Kinaray-a Poems using the concept of Modernity An Undergraduate Thesis Presented to Division of Humanities College of Arts and Sciences University of the Philippines in the Visayas Miagao, Iloilo In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Bachelor of Arts in Literature By Tricy E. Sumugat October 2008 APPROVAL SHEET The Undergraduate Thesis Attached entitled Modernity in Kinaray-a Poetry A Study of 15 Contemporary Kinaray-a Poems using the concept of Modernity prepared by Tricy E. SumugatIn partial fulfillment for the Degree of Bachelor of Arts in Literature Is hereby recommended for acceptance and approval __________________________________________ Prof. Milagros Legislador Prof. Celia Parcon ____________________ Prof. Jonathan P. Jurilla Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Arts in Literature ____________________ Prof. Jonathan P. Jurilla Chair Division of Humanities colleg e of Arts and Sciences University of the Philippines in the Visayas 5023 Miagao, Iloilo Table of ContentsTitle Page †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. I Approval Sheet †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. II Acknowledgment †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. III Abstract †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. IV Chapter I Introduction †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Statement of the Problem †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 2 Objectives of the Study †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 2 Significance of the Study †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â ‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 2 Chapter II Review of Related Literatures †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 4 Chapter III Theoretical Framework †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Chapter IV Methodology †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 9 Chapter V Analysis and Discussion †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 10 Chapter VI Conclusion and Recommendation †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 23 Chapter VII Works Ci ted †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 25 Chapter VII Appendices †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 26 Acknowledgment My gratitude to the following: Prof. Jonathan Jurilla who helped me for my research topic and for the challenging criticisms and comments on my work which boost my interest to be a better literature student; Prof. Rosela Zaragoza, Prof. Rosario Asong, Prof.Maybelle Guillergan, Prof Milagros Legislador, Prof. Celia Parcon and Prof. Oveta Villareal for giving me lots of beautiful things in literature; Prof. Raymundo Piccio and Dr. Leoncio Deriada for being so nice as a teacher and for sharing new knowledge; To the staff of the Antique Provincial Library and Paranubliun Antique for their assistanc e during my research; JAZZ INTERNET cafe for the fast access of their computer; James Philip Javines for the company when I have my research and for the types of assistances; Rodolfo and Francisca, my parents as y strength and inspiration to pursue life; Ricky my only brother for the extra time to help; God for giving me such knowledge. Abstract The Modernity in Kinaray-a Poetry – A study of 15 Contemporary Kinaray-a poems using the concept of Modernity is written to analyze the poems in Kinaray-a using the concept of Modernity. This study aims to gather 15 Contemporary Kinaray-a poems and examine the discourses of â€Å"modernity† or postmodernity as embedded in 15 Contemporary Kinaray-a poems.These poems are taken from a book The Rise of Kinaray-a and literary issues. This study concludes that there are four major concerns of â€Å"modernity† present in 15 Contemporary Kinaray-a poems. Suprisingly, the poems reveals that this generation has already identified themselves with modernity that the past is no longer present or common ways in the past slowly fades and rural lands had been attracted to transfer in urban areas for opportunities and fast access on facilities. Chapter I Introduction Kinaray-a literature is known to have an exciting tradition.The siday, known to be ancient Kinaray-a poem performed during the pamalaye or betrothal and luy-a luy-a or religious ritual. According to Villarreal (1997), siday is a generic term to refer to all folks of Panay and Negros. Modern poetry in Kinaray-a are mostly in free verse. A poem in Kinaray-a is called binalaybay. Binalaybay is famous during fiesta in various places in Antique especially in barangay 3 town of San Jose, mostly performed by old folks. Kinaray-a, is a language mostly used by Antiquenos.According to â€Å"The Rise of Kinaray-a, a book by Alex C. Delos Santos, Kinaray-a is one of the minor languages classified under Austronesian/Malayo-Polynesian lineage. It is spoken in all o f Antique, from Libertad to Anini-y, parts of Aklan and Capiz, most of Iloilo, and even in Negros Occidental where the biggest number of sakadas, seasonal workers in the haciendas, is Kinaray-a from Antique. It is difficult to trace the origin of Kinaray-a but old folks says it comes from the root word iraya which means high place where water comes from.In the absence of print, there had been two media through which Kinaray-a literature persisted, through radio and theater. These actually served the transition from purely oral to written literature according to Delos Santos (2003). Other than radio and theater, the fast outcome of modern technology had a great help among Antiquenos as well as Antiqueno writers. The emergence of â€Å"Balita Antiqueno† in Buenavista Cable and the â€Å"Kinaray-a. com† an Antiqueno community website had been a way for Kinaray-a to fully show their talents as well as poetry.Issues on gender roles, and class races have been used in many st udies but rare cases on Modernity. Modernity is used as a framework for this study to present new concepts in literature, for in Kinaray-a poems modernity is also prominent. Statement of the problem This study is meant to analyze Modernity in 15 Contemporary Kinaray-a poems by different Antiqueno authors. Objectives of the study This study aims to: 1. gather 15 Contemporary Kinaray-a poems and; 2. examine the discourses of â€Å"modernity† or postmodernity as embedded in 15 Contemporary Kinaray-a poems Significance of the studyMost people especially in West Visayas think that Kinaray-a poetry lacks value and that Kinaray-a is just an oppressive part of literary world due to the fact that â€Å"Kinaray-a writers suffered a form of oppression by the hegemony of Hiligaynon† (Delos Santos 2003). Somehow, this leads to the decline of the interest of Kinaray-a writer to bloom their hidden talents. Kinaray-a writers uses Tagalog, English or Hiligaynon instead of using Kinaray -a as a language for their written text to escape from civilized people’s view that Kinaray-a as a language is â€Å"buki† or unusual. Modernity reatly influenced young writers nowadays. â€Å"Students that are products of Universities† (The Rise of Kinaray-a 2003 p. 32). These students mostly come from provinces, barrios/rural lands, that within their written poems, modernity is highly present. Chapter II Review of Related Literature Dr. Alicia P. Magos wrote The Enduring Maaram: An Ethnography of a Kinaray-a village in Antique (1992), known to be one of the first comprehensive studies on an Antiqueno life. And this inspires to bloom the title Maaram: Studies on Antique an anthology of essays and papers on Antique, by Antiquenos, for Antiquenos.A maaram refers to a medicine man (shaman) as an intermediary between the sick and the spirit world. According to Maaram, very little about Antique could be seen in printed materials such as tourist brochures, fiesta sou venir programs, and sketchy legends of each of the 18 towns of the Province. This could be one of the basis that even poems in Kinaray-a is not widely known among other people and that writers in Kinaray-a uses Tagalog, English or even Hiligaynon in writing their poems and a little of them uses Kinaray-a.In the Inaugural Lecture with the theme â€Å"Textualizing Kinaray-a in the Republic of Letters† held in UPV (2008). Tomasito Talledo says, â€Å"its not necessary to translate Kinaray-a poems into English neither Tagalog or Hiligaynon, and anyone who wants to study the poems but does not know the Kinaray-a language, will do well by learning it. † This line of Talledo stresses that Kinaray-a writers tend to escape to their native language. Modernity is one of the reasons because natives or parents from rural lands send their children in urban schools to have fast access in facilities due to modernity.Kinaray-a literature fro Antiquenos is way through which they could r eflect the essence and presence of modernity, that in one way or another being â€Å"modern† is not a choice but a need. Furthermore most written works of Kinaray-a young writers modernity is reflected for one reason is they have been products of Universities. Talented individuals that have been influenced by the norms and culture within the urban areas. Moreover, Ma. Milagros G. Lachica is the first Kinaray-a to gain recognition given by the CCP Literature Grants for Poetry in 1989.Her work â€Å"Antike: Lupa kag baybay sa pinggan† (Antique: Land and sea on a plate) spoke of the poetry and social ills of the Province. This doesn’t mean she was the first one to write in Kinaray-a. Russell Tordesillas may have been the first one. He wrote his manuscripts which he read on air in DYKA (radio station in Antique). Next to win the CCP grant is Alex C. Delos Santos and followed by other Kinaray-a writers. This begins when Lachica and Delos Santos attended the workshop of Hilgaynon writers in UPV because there were no groups of Kinaray-a writers.In Antique, only Sumakwelan could be considered but its members compose of Hiligaynon writers. Dr. Leoncio Deriada as the panelist (Professor in UPV and a writer) told Lachica and Delos Santos to try the writing grant and use Kinaray-a in their entry. There were no other individuals who could write better the story of Antique but only the Kinaray-a people and Kinaray-a literature should value most by Antiquenos. A writer has the responsibility in the language he/she uses. Additionally, Kinaray-a writers didn’t have the means to publish but they did a lot of writing too only in Hiligaynon because it was the only way to get published.There is a big break for individuals to take chance in reading and appreciate Kinaray-a literature especially those in the academe, if only Kinaray-a writers will use Kinaray-a in their written works. The big problem which Kinaray-a people does not observe, there is less use of Kinaray-a in writing. Among various languages, Antiquenos must obliged to use Kinaray-a than use other languages such as Tagalog, English and Hiligaynon, because it is the language they are used to and its quickly for them to catch ideas on paper.As for modern poetry, or free verse, Sumakwelan writers suggested the term hilwalaybay for â€Å"hilway nga binalaybay†; hilway means free, according to The Rise of Kinaray-a (2003). But the Kinaray-a writers did not catch on, and preferred to use binalaybay, whether rhyming or free verse. Most of the poems of Kinaray-a writers are in free verse. Sometimes, the Hiligaynon coinage dilambong, for â€Å"dila nga maambong† (beautiful tongue), is also being used. Poet John Iremil E. Teodoro suggest the use of them dilambong to mean poetry.It points not to the poem itself, but to the art of writing a poem, according to The Rise of Kinaray-a (2003). Chapter III Theoretical Framework Modernity is a shorthand term for modern soc iety or industrial civilization. Portrayed in more detail, it is associated with (1) a certain set of attitudes towards the world, the idea of the world as open to transformation by human intervention (2) a complex economic institutions, especially industrial production and a market economy (3) a certain range of political institutions, including the nation state and mass democracy.Largely as a result of these characteristics, modernity is vastly more dynamic than any previous type of social order. It is a society more technically, a complex of institutions-which unlike any preceding culture lives in the future rather than the past (Gidden 1998, p. 94). In Jurilla's analysis, â€Å"Modernity is a powerful cultural construction that usually favors the originator – the West. Western modernity has always been maintained as the standard civilization. A person that is not modern is â€Å"manol† or uncivilized.A person that does not submit to modernity's cultural apparatuse s is either a beast or a god. † Furthermore, Raul Pertierra presents three features of modernity: â€Å"the nation-state as the main site of sovereignty, the extraordinary gains in science and technology and the rise and prominence of culture as a socially constituted activity. Personal identity or individuality is also one distinguished discourse of modernity. For in modernity, norms are subdued to give way to the sovereign individual who is the source of knowledge and reason.Modernity is simply the sense or the idea that the present is discontinuous with the past that through a process of social and cultural change life in the present is fundamentally different from the past. The â€Å"crisis of modernity† is the sense that modernity is a problem, that traditional ways of life have been replaced with uncontrollable change and unmanageable alternatives. The crisis itself is merely the sense that the present is a transitional point not focused on a clear goal in the fu ture but simply changing through forces outside our control, but this study limit itself to modernity in 15 Contemporary Kinaray-a poems.Chapter IV Methodology To start this study, the researcher gathered related literatures from books of Antique Provincial Library, and researches from the Internet. Scope and Limitation This study focus only on the 15 Contemporary Kinaray-a poems of different authors taken from the following books and literary issues: Binirayan ’08: Manggad nga Antiqeno, Paranublion kang Filipino Binirayan 2007: Culture and Arts The Rise of Kinaray-a: History and Anthology of Contemporary Literature in Antique, These poems are: 1. Laragway (Florentina Egida) 2. Halin kay Nanay (Ma. Felicia Flores) 3.Paglatas kang handum ( Ma. Felicia Flores) 4. Iliili kang Manugpatad (Ma. Milagros Geremia-Lachica) 5. Hinugot sa post card (Jose Edison C. Tondares) 6. Strit Ekis (Jose Edison C. Tondares) 7. Sugidanun (Lucena C. Tondares) 8. Sulat (Ma. Milagros Geremia- Lachica) 9. Ang Tumuluon (Genevieve C. Arnaez) 10. Patadyong (Linda Casalan Arnaez) 11. Tag-ururan (Francisco Javier III) 12. Dyoker ay (Ma. Milagros Geremia- Lachica) 13. Sa Kinaray-a (Reymar B. Gallego) 14. Ra Tana! (Stephen Checa) 15. Ang Ginawali sa Atlantic City (Ma. Milagros Geremia-Lachica) Chapter V Analysis and Discussion I.Modernity & the Environment Sometimes, it’s not the land that waits. In many cases, Antiquenos leave because there is no land to speak of, (Delos Santos 2003 p. 49). In cities there are lots of opportunities to grab while in native lands, there is no assurance. Modernity shapes the urban areas through the presence of modern technologies, facilities, etc. In Egida’s poem Laragway†, nature’s beauty can no longer be seen. In the first stanza, Pintahan mo ako kang bukid Mga kahoy gapaindis-indis. Pintahan mo ako kang banglid Nga ang kilid bukut it pud-is. Kay daw sa damgo ko lang dya nakita.Most of beautiful views we could see nowadays are almost man made which have a big difference from nature’s beauty of the past which is natural. Nowadays, agricultural lands are being transformed into industrial lands in which big infrastructures are built. In the first stanza to the last stanza, the persona can only see nature’s beauty only in his dreams. Another poem is â€Å"Tag-ururan†, the rain and mother’s tear is compared to sacrifices and sufferings. In the lines, Nagbilin kang danaw ang uran Sa salug makita ang langit Ang luha ni nanay sangka dagat Naga hiribiun para sa atupThe mother wanted to escape from poverty, in the lines, San-o ayhan mamara kang adlaw Ang luha kag uran The mother wanted a more concrete house specifically a better roof to comfort her family when heavy rain comes. II. Modernity & Education Modernity in education is also present in Kinaray-a poems. Many have been lured by the city, especially the natives. For in urban areas, their children could engage in the fast access of facilities and lots of opportunities. Modernity and education gives assurance to natives to have a secure future. In â€Å"Halin kay Nanay†, Inday felt bad for a delayed allowance.Most parents at present times sends their children in urban schools, to have a better and secure future, because they believe that it is the only way to lift them up from poverty. Halin kay Nanay is also a form of protest in the lines, Inday, Nagsungon gid ikaw Wara kami dayon kapadara Buhay mabaton ang sulat Hay nagbaha ang suba Nautod ang tulay the breakdown of the bridge is one of the causes why Inday’s allowance was delayed. If banks are present in Inday’s place, the mother does not need to wait for the reconstruction of the bridge, instead she will deposit in Inday’s account and Inday can get her allowance anytime.The mother believes that technology can somehow help her for a faster way of sending Inday’s allowance. â€Å"Paglatas kang Handum† is another poem which also shows that sending a child in urban schools would mean greener pasture. In the lines, Indi namun ikaw ni Tatay mo pagpunggan Ano man abi ang imo mangin paraabuton rugya sa uma Wara man kami ti inogpanubli kanimo maski sampingas the mother believes that living in a remote place is useless or having no future if compared to cities. Another poem â€Å"Sulat†, a letter comes from the province had received by a student studying in the city. At the bottom of he letter the words were not clear and it seems there were islands formed in the lines, Naglubad ang iban nga mga tinaga Daw mga isla kon turukun The student searched where Antique is Ginpangita kon diin nayon ang Antique Nay, indi ko run mabasa ang sulat mo Raku pa nga isla ang nagturuhaw Napuno run ang pahina The student could no longer read the letter of her mother. In the last eight lines of the poem, the daughter pleaded to her mother not to write her again because she doesn’t want to see the islands aga in. In the lines, Nay, indi run ako pagsulati Indi run natun pagpaayawan ang karteroKinii ang paggamit kang tinta Agud indi mamantsahan ang lamesa mo sa kusina Kag ang mga isla Indi ko gusto nga makita ruman. Nagapalangga, Ang imo anak. These lines also convey to its readers that the student wanted to forget the place where she came from because it’s a province. III. Natives favor Modernity Natives are in favor to modernity. The poem â€Å"Ang Tumuluon†, the student has questions that longed for answers and compared it to the particle that somehow floating within the personas thought, Sa paramangkutanun nga daw mga bagtuk nga nagalabugay Sa akun paminsarun. In the lines, Namit gid man ang importedBisan sabor kang sara-sara, Malipatan mo. The student appreciates the taste of an imported drinks offered to hi, but still the answers didn’t show up and the student felt more nervous in the lines, Garing hay, Wara gid naglugdang Ang mga lagtuk Sa akun pensar, Nagtubo p a ang nerbyos ko. In these lines, the student is bothered by the effect of imported goods. This poem has an imagery of how people were blinded by imported goods/products that it has a bad contribution to our own Philippine product, that in one way or another, instead of buying local products, people are eager to buy imported ones.This poem somehow reflects how individuals/natives behavior is changed by modernity that life in the present greatly differs from the past. â€Å"Patadyong† is another poem, patadyong is a native product woven into different designs. Unlike before, patadyong has limited uses, but because of modernity, it is now used for different fashion shows. From a simple cloth to elegant gowns. kon kaisa, wara naga ararangay ang imo mga duag pero katingalahan, nagapabilin kaw nga maanyag kabay nga duro pa gid ang magasuksuk kanimo Kinaray-a. Com- patadyong kang Antikenyo.Moreover, because of modernity patadyong does not only referred to as a cloth but also as a c ommunity website which is the kinaray-a. com that makes Antiqueno unite and shapes the Antiqueno identity. The poem â€Å"Hinugot sa postcard†, Labtugs mother appreciates the characteristics of Labtug’s wife who came from the city, Kang nag-abot ikaw Halin sa syudad Rugya sa amun sa Igcococ, Raku ang nagkuon nga swerte gid Ang bata ko nga si Labtug. According to Jurilla, a person who is not modern is termed as â€Å"manol† in the lines, Kon maglatay kaw gani Sa mga kahon sa tunga kang parayan,Daw hinugot ikaw Sa nagainaw-inaw nga post card. The mother is very conscious of the woman’s behaviors who came from the city even on the ways the woman walked to the field. The poem itself reflects a mother’s view to a civilized woman. She has not considered the behavior of Labtug’s wife as an adaptation to the tradition in a barrio but instead, Labtug’s mother is very appreciative of a woman’s behavior coming from the city, that somehow Labtug’s wife is different among other native women. Native’s view that marrying a man/woman from the city is a lucky catch.Also in the poem â€Å"Sugidanun†, the â€Å"karne† (meat) represents change which made the persona in the poem doubt if change would be grasped or not. Mayuhut nga karne Akon ginligon-ligon But due to â€Å"modernity†, traditional ways of life have been replaced with uncontrollable change and unmanageable alternatives. The persona realized of accepting change specifically modernity, Daw parehas lang Ka binuy-an mo Nga sugidanum: Mapait Pero akun gintulun. Another poem â€Å"Ra Tana†, the first stanza shows the difference of a car into a carriage and uses as a status symbol within the society.Ang awto kag ang karusa Rayu gid kun ikumparar ta Ang tanda kag suruklan dya Pangabuhi sa syudad kag uma Moreover, from the second stanza to the last stanza, when natives goes into the city, he/she is ashamed of using the native la nguage and uses other language. They adapt themselves to how people in the city socialize. The reason is civilized people view native language as unusual or â€Å"buki†. The poem itself addresses its readers that native people have been influenced by modernity, that instead of being proud of their own native language, they rather choose to speak other languages or dialects.In â€Å"Sa Kinaray-a†, also shows how modernity changes the early ways of having friends. Nowadays, Internet can be access any time and a person can have friends at anytime. This poem somehow tells that Kinaray-a people have been united by the Internet. IV. Modernity in Lifestyle The leisure time of natives nowadays are mostly influenced by Western Culture which is a great representation of modernity. Gambling is influenced by Western countries such as Spain. In â€Å"Dyoker ay†, a mother believes on her luck in â€Å"madjong† and ignores her child who is pleading for a food at supper, Nay, indi run magpautangSi manding Sibya ano bay idapli namun! The mother continued playing while having â€Å"tsismis† (gossips) with other gamblers, Ano bay kuon ni Posang Hay may dara si Idok na Nga Sibwana kuno? and even somebody asked her to go home because her husband was drunk, still the mother continued playing, M're buslan ‘ta kaw Uli ‘to anay Nalingin kuno si Polding mo In the last line of the poem â€Å"Dyoker ay†, the mother won in â€Å"madjong† and retains her luck. This poem represents the modern ways of leisure time and somehow source of income of natives that instead of thinking for a better work, they still prefer gambling.The next poem is another form or representation of gambling. Lottery is a form of gambling and millions of people are engaged into it. People wasted much money in trying their luck at lottery and win millions of pesos if they are lucky enough. In â€Å"Iliili kang Manugpatad†, a father keeps trying his luc k even if he was out of luck, Dimalas gid ang sabat Mapatad ta liwat but still hope of winning and says he will try again his luck.. Another poem is â€Å"Strit Ekis† the people were also engaged into gambling such as lottery. In the lines Ay tabang! Tabang! May nagbungguanay the people were crowded because there was an accident.But instead of helping they are bothered of a certain happening and objects that signifies or represents numbers, Ano gani ang numero Kang dugo? Kang traysikel tana? Ay! ay nagabusong! Ay abaw! Ano? May nagabusong pa! Sige! Abaya sa numero! Srit ekis! Pulo ang patad. Ay tabang! Tabang! Ay abaw it was a late realization for the people to help those in the accident. Another poem is â€Å"Ang Ginawali sa Atlantic City†, its surprising to know that even in church, modernity is present. In the lines, Pinasahi ang bagting ka mga simbahan relihiyon ka swerte ang ginawali kang mga kaparian kang kapalaran a Caesars, Trump Marina, Sands, Taj Mahal ukon B orgata The ringing of the bell in Atlantic City’s church is different among others. In these lines, prayers are not just viewed as a way to praise God but also to have a prosperous life. It is not the teachings of God that enables people to attend mass instead it’s the physical appearance of the church beauty that pushes people to offer prayers and big offerings, daragkul nga mga katedral nagairigpat, nagapanghagad sa mga tumuluo sa paghalad pagnobena kag pagsimba sa altar ka mga slot machines kag baraha; The church is also open 24 hours a day,Sa dya'ng mga simmbahan ang mga misa wara't katapusan adlaw-adlaw sanda bukas sa byente kwatro oras Somehow churches in Atlantic City represents modernity wherein people forgotten the early ways of praising God. In the last lines, Parehas kang pagkanabaw kang dya'ng relihiyon nga napasad, bukut sa bato kundi sa pagsipal sa swerte nga ginadamgo. religion is slowly vanishing and later on would be viewed only as a way of having pros perity. Chapter VI Conclusion and Recommendation Contemporary Kinaray-a poetry are mostly works of young writers that have been products of Universities. To borrow Deriada’s words. The neglect of the countryside in favor of the big city. † This is somehow the reason why in present works of Kinaray-a writers, â€Å"modernity† is present or reflected. There are four major concerns of â€Å"modernity† present in 15 Contemporary Kinaray-a poems. These are: 1. Environment. Modernity in the environment is one way through which individuals tend to leave the native land. Natives are somehow longing for the past but it was already changed or gone away because of modernity 2. Education. Natives send their children in urban schools for the fast access on facilities and this gives them hope. 3.Natives being in favored to modernity. They have this notion that being in favored to modernity would mean lots of opportunities and 4. Gambling as social vice. Modernity in gam bling could highly show that in leisure time and lifestyle of natives nowadays, â€Å"modernity† is present The concept of modernity makes us understand that the present is discontinuous with the past, than through a process of social and cultural change, life in the present is fundamentally different form the past. These poems make us believe that modernity highly affects us individuals that we have adapted through the process of change due to â€Å"modernity†.This generation has already identified themselves with modernity in this case, the past is no longer present or common ways in the past slowly fades and rural lands had been attracted to transfer in urban areas for opportunities and fast access on facilities. Literature is a marginalized field but its change due to â€Å"modernity† is not felt by all. Further research is also recommended for the better understanding of â€Å"modernity’s† effect in Contemporary Kinaray-a poems. Works Cited Bo oks Binirayan ’08: Manggad nga Antiqeno, Paranublion kang Filipino. Special Literary Issue Binirayan 2007: Culture and Arts Issue.Published by Binirayan Foundation, Inc. 2/F Antique Development Center MAARAM: Studies on Antique, University of San Agustin, edited by Alex C. Delos Santos. Copyright ©2003 by Paranublion-Antique,Inc. Delos Santos, Alex. The Rise of Kinaray-a: History and Anthology of Contemporary Literature in Antique, 2003. Selden, Raman, Peter Widdowson, and Peter Brooker. A Reader’s Guide to Contemporary Literary Theory. 4th ed. Great Britain:Prentice Hall/Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1997 Bhaba, Homi K. †Ã¢â‚¬â„¢Race’and the Revision of Modernity. †Postcolonoial Criticisms. Eds. Pertierra, Raul. The Work of Culture. Manila:De la Salle University Press,Inc. 002 Electronic Sources http://www. kinaray-a. com/content/category/5/16/75/50/0/ http://www. kinaray-a. com/content/section/5/36/ http://www. google. com. ph/search? hl=tl&q=kinaray-a+p oetry&meta= http://members. tripod. com/~adsantos/index_3. html http://nening. com/panay. html http://www. kinaray-a. com/component/option,com_fireboard/Itemid,155/func,view/catid,17/id,9495/ http://members. tripod. com/~adsantos/tabig. html http://www. fanstory. com/index1. jsp? pt=1&gclid=CPHXpdeX_pUCFQLObwod0QMtEw Appendix Laragway (Florentina Egida) Pintahan mo ako kang bukid Mga kahoy gapaindis-indis. Pintahan mo ako kang banglidNga ang kilid bukut it pud-is. Kay daw sa damgo ko lang dya nakita. Pintahan mo ako kang sapa Nga may kristal nga tubig. Pintahan mo ako kang suba; Tubig nga matin-aw ‘gailig. Kay man sa damgo ko lang dya makita. Himuan mo kang kapatagan; Mga tanum sa hangin gasaot. Ibutang mo ang kadagatan; Mag isda gapisik sa lawod. Kay daw sa damgo ko run lang dya makita. Halin kay Nanay (Ma. Felicia Flores) Inday, Nagsungon gid ikaw Wara kami dayon kapadara Buhay mabaton ang sulat Hay nagbaha ang suba Nautod ang tulay Kulang ang padara Ang tanum napyerde kang insekto Kag kulang ang abono. Ang baynte kabanes Nga atun naaniBuhinan pa pulo ka sako Bayad sa alili. Pero pabay-i lang ‘ra Hugud lang sa pagtuon mo. Paglatas kang handum ( Ma. Felicia Flores) Indi namun ikaw ni Tatay mo pagpunggan Ano man abi ang imo mangin paraabuton rugya sa uma Wara man kami ti inogpanubli kanimo maski sampingas Naman-an mo man nga ang atun gid lamang ginapanag-iyahan Ang dyang hayub-hayub Mayad lang gani ginapaistar kita rugya nanday Mistra Pila kag Pitan Bonoy sa andang bantud nga libre Sa imong pagpanaw ang solo namun nga pabalon Sangka himpit nga parangadium nga kabay sa syudad Indi ikaw magtalang. Iliili kang Manugpatad (Ma. Milagros Geremia-Lachica)Iliili hipus anay Wara rugya imong tatay Rugto sa banwa Nagpatad sa lateri Iliili basi may swirti Iliili turog anay Nag-abot run imong tatay Ti kamusta ano ang igu? Dimalas gid ang sabat Mapatad ta liwat Iliili damgo anay Ihani dayon sa imong tatay Linugaw nga sangka yahong? Orim buk ang pamangkutan kon m ay numiro nga kombinasyon Iliili hipus run lang Sigi ubusa imong suam Bisan samuan pa Ka marahalun nga gatas Ang linugaw nga imong ginpahamgo Bantayi lang kon magtupa Swirti natun sa numiro. Hinugot sa post card (Jose Edison C. Tondares) Kang nag-abot ikaw Halin sa syudad Rugya sa amun sa Igcococ, Raku ang nagkuon nga swerte gidAng bata ko nga si Labtug. Kon maglatay kaw gani Sa mga kahon sa tunga kang parayan, Daw hinugot ikaw Sa nagainaw-inaw nga post card. Debwenas gid ang bata ko Sagad man ikaw magraha Bisan pa abi makita ta ikaw Nga nagahibi bisan nagakihad kang sibuyas. Mauti ikaw kag raku ang imo malabhan. Kamaan man ikaw magsagod Kang inyong kasapatan. Nagatuontuon run gani ikaw Ka pananum kag pangarab. Kon mag-abot si Labtug Nga lingin halin sa pihak-baryo Ginasibinan mo kag paislan. Kang ang inyong subang Nagabahul nga mayad ang batasan. Bilang imo ugangan, Wara run ako ti masugyot pa kanimo. Tuduhi lang abi kaun Hay daw nagahagwus ikaw.Strit Ekis (Jose Edison C. Tondares) Ay tabang! Tabang! May nagbungguanay Dali! Ha? Ano gani ang numero Kang dugo? Kang traysikel tana? Ay! ay nagbusong! Ay abaw! Ano? May nagabusong pa! Sige! Abaya sa numero! Srit ekis! Pulo ang patad. Ay tabang! Tabang! Ay abaw Sugidanun (Lucena C. Tondares) Mayuhut nga karne Akon ginligon-ligon Daw parehas lang Ka binuy-an mo Nga sugidanum: Mapait Pero akun gintulun. Sulat (Ma. Milagros Geremia- Lachica) Nay, Nabuy-an ko ang imo sulat pagdawu kang kartero Tuman gali ka bug-at bisan sampanid lamang ang malauring nga tinta tama ka siri Seguro nagtagos sa lamesa mo sa kusinaPero sa ubus kang papel Naglubad ang iban nga mga tinaga Daw mga isla kon turukun Ginpangita kon diin nayon ang Antique Nay, indi ko run mabasa ang sulat mo Raku pa nga isla ang nagturuhaw Mapuno run ang pahina Kon ano man ang sugid mo parte kay Tatay Kag akun mga libayon Kaluy-an sanda kang Dios Nay, indi run ako pagsulati Indi run natun pagpaayawan ang kartero Kinii ang paggamit kang tinta Agud indi mamantsahan a ng lamesa mo sa kusina Kag ang mga isla Indi ko gusto nga makita ruman. Nagapalangga, Ang imo anak. Ang Tumuluon (Genevieve C. Arnaez) Balde gid an bitbit ko Surudlan kang sinaw nga sabat Sa paramangkutanun ga daw mga bagtuk nga nagalabugay Sa akun paminsarun. Pag-abot ko sa inyo Sangka tasun kang labaab Nga master's choice Ang gindawu mo. Namit gid man ang imported Bisan sabor kang sara-sara, Malipatan mo. Garing hay, Wara gid naglugdang Ang mga lagtuk Sa akun pensar, Nagtubo pa ang nerbyos ko. Patadyong (Linda Casalan Arnaez) duyan ni nini kg nonoy, ubit ni lola Puroy ni ontoy kag palda ni akay, kurtina kang mga daraga dekorasyon sa simbahan, hapin sa lamesa kang banwa layg kang baruto, kon mankayun sa iban nga isda ginhuman ikaw sa nasari-sari nga hilo kang pagkatawo may pula, may asul may bierde, may kaki may itum kag may puti ya tanan nagapabutyag kang imong kapinasahi kon kaisa, wara naga ararangay ang imo mga duag pero katingalahan, nagapabilin kaw nga maanyag kabay nga duro pa gid ang magasuksuk sa kanimo Kinaray-a. Com- patadyong kang Antikenyo. Tag-ururan (Francisco Javier III) Nagbilin kang danaw ang uran Sa salug makita ang langit Ang luha ni nanay sangka dagat Naga hiribiun para sa atup San-o ayhan mamara kang adlaw Ang luha kag uran Dyoker ay (Ma. Milagros Geremia- Lachica) Nay, indi run magpautang Si manding Sibya ano bay idapli namun! Tsariti! Ay linti nga bata Duro pa to' asin sa kuron Panaw, sabad Pong! Labay man akun Ano bay kuon ni PasangHay may dara si Idok na Nga Sibwana kuno? Todas! Atun-atun lang d'ta Piro bati ko Tri mants insayd kuno? Sikrit! M're buslan ‘ta kaw Uli ‘to anay Nalingin kuno si Polding mo Todas! Yawa nga bana akun ra Sagasa! Dyoker ay! Sa Kinaray-a (Reymar B. Gallego) Kita tanan nagkilalahay rudya sa kinaray-a Sa isara ka matahom nga pag-updanay nag-umpisa Sa una kung ikaw wara ti kilala Away ang status kag magabatyag kang kaluya. Una nga pamankot, taga diin ikaw amigo kag amiga? Kay ako gusto sa imo magpakil ala. Ang huya ginabuhinan kung kaisa Kay ang luyag magkasadya imaw sa mga kasimanwa. Kun ikaw bata pa sa iba nga nakilalaManong kag manang ang respeto nga pagtawag kananda Kag kung ang istorya medyo madalom na nilag mode anay ikaw hija. May nanay kag tatay kita rudya, pero hindi mag-asawa Pero ginkabig kita tanan nga myembro ka pamilya May lolo nga ginabayaan ni lola Pero asta tulad ana ginahigugma. May mga tita pa kita rudya sa kinaray-a Nga wara pag untat sa paghigugma sa mga kasimanwa Bisan gamay lang nga oras magalingling pa Makita lang nga mayad ang mga pinalangga da. Ang harakhak kang isara kag isara wara pag-untat Kun linabutaw ron ang topiko Makapahagan-hagan ka sakit sa ulo kag problema Ang mga manami nga pag-inistoryaPero kon seryoso ron ang paga-adtonan Hindi gid madura nga paghigugma ang paga-istoryahan Mga laygay ni manong kag ni manang Patiha ninyo kay para ria sa inyo kaaraydan. Kon kamo man magabatyag kang kaluya log in lang kamo sa kinaray-a Istoryaha si amigo kag a miga kag rudya duro gwapo kag gwapa. Mga kinaray-a ja nagtiriripon may halin sa Dubai kag may sa London Ang iban dyan lang sa San Jose ukon Patnongon Ang importante kita tanan maghiriugyon. Ra Tana! (Stephen Checa) Ang awto kag ang karusa Rayu gid kun ikumpara ta Ang tanda kag suruklan dya Pangabuhi sa syudad kag uma Sa pagpanglugayawan kang tawo Halin sa uma sa syudad paadtoPagginawi kag hambal ginabaylo Tungod nga ginakahuya didto Kinaray-a, ano bala ri-a? Tawag sa paghambal sa uma Nga kun mabatian gani kang iba Nagakuon†¦ Baw! Kabuki gid ah! San Jaoquin, Miag-ao, Guimbal, Tigbauan Sipak sa Igbaras, Leon kag Tubungan Deretso sa san Miguel kag Alimodian Ilabi sa Antique kun imo adtunan Karay-a imukrat ang imo mga mata Panghambal mo indi pag-ikahuya Magpakamalig-on, ipakita kananda Ang pat-ud nga mga ebidensya; Tama gid karayu ang â€Å"ayam† sa â€Å"ido† Pero kun may alog kanimo magpatudlo â€Å"Mangangaso†, ano ang tawag sa inyo? Indi pwede â€Å"mangin gido†, kag pat-ud â€Å"mangangayam† isabat mo Amon â€Å"busong†, tawag ninyo â€Å"tiyan†Sa bayi, kang bata pagasudlan â€Å"Nagabusong† ang tinaga dyan Indi man pwede tawgun â€Å"nagatiyan' Lakat ka â€Å"tiil† panaw kaw â€Å"kahig† sa pagtugpo kang manok ikaw magbulig Indi kaw gid pwede â€Å"magpatiil† Hay sa bulangan ang tawag â€Å"pakahig† Sa imo pag-uli ikaw gutom run Ang â€Å"pagluto† ukon â€Å"pagraha† himuon Kag sa diin ikaw magaprito kang isda Sa â€Å"kaluto† ukon sa â€Å"karaha†? Gani Sta. Barbara, Maasin, Mina Kag sa Antique nga probinsiya Aton hambal ginasunod-sunod nanda Magtindog kag ipabugal ta†¦. Kita mga†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ KARAY-A!!!!!! Ang Ginawali sa Atlantic City (Ma. Milagros Geremia-Lachica) New Jersey, USA Pinasahi ang bagting ka mga simbahan elihiyon ka swerte ang ginawali kang mga kaparian kang kapalaran sa Caesars, Trump Marina, Sands, Taj Mahal uko Borgata daragkul nga mga katedral nagairigpat, nagapanghagad sa mga tumuluo sa paghalad pagnobena kag pafsimba sa altar ka mga slot machines kag baraha; Sa dya'ng mga simmbahan ang mga misa wara't katapusan adlaw-adlaw sanda bukas sa byente kwatro oras kag handa gid sa pagbaton mga pangamuyo kag pag-ampo halin sa mga bulsa nga daw indi matungkad ang kadalum ugaring sa urihi, amat-amat man nga naganabaw Parehas kang pagkanabaw kang dya'ng relihiyon nga napasad, bukut sa bato kundi sa pagsipal sa swerte nga ginadamgo.